Creating Hyperlinks

Hyperlinks are the backbone of the web, serving as the primary means of connecting web pages. They enable users to navigate seamlessly between different pages and resources with a simple click or tap. In this section, we will explore the fundamental concepts and techniques for creating hyperlinks using HTML anchor tags (<a>). We will learn how to specify link destinations, including relative and absolute URLs, linking to specific sections within a page using anchor tags, and adding target attributes to control link behavior. By mastering the art of hyperlink creation, you will be able to create interconnected and user-friendly websites.

Understanding the Anchor Tag

The anchor tag (<a>) is the HTML element used to create hyperlinks. It consists of an opening tag (<a>) and a closing tag (</a>). Within the opening tag, we specify the destination of the link using the href attribute. The text or content placed between the opening and closing tags serves as the visible link text that users interact with. Example:

<a href="">Click here</a>

In the above example, the anchor tag creates a hyperlink with the text "Click here" that points to the URL ""

Using Relative and Absolute URLs

When creating hyperlinks, we have two options for specifying the link destination: relative URLs and absolute URLs.

Relative URLs

A relative URL specifies the link destination relative to the current page's location. It is typically used for linking within the same website or referencing resources within the same directory structure. Relative URLs are shorter and more flexible, allowing for easier website maintenance and portability. Example:

<a href="about.html">About</a>

In this example, the anchor tag creates a hyperlink to the "about.html" file located in the same directory as the current page.

Absolute URLs

An absolute URL provides the complete web address of the link destination, including the protocol (e.g., "http://" or "https://") and the domain name. Absolute URLs are commonly used when linking to external websites or resources. Example:

<a href="">Example Website</a>

In this example, the anchor tag creates a hyperlink to the external website ""

Understanding the difference between relative and absolute URLs is crucial for creating accurate and functional hyperlinks within your web pages.

Linking to Specific Sections within a Page

In addition to linking to different web pages, HTML allows us to create links that navigate to specific sections within the same page. This technique, known as anchor links or internal page links, is particularly useful for long web pages with multiple sections.

To create an anchor link, we need to assign an ID attribute to the target section. The ID attribute provides a unique identifier for the section, allowing the link to reference it directly. Example:

<h2 id="section1">Section 1</h2>
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.</p>
<a href="#section1">Jump to Section 1</a>

In the above example, the <h2> tag represents the section heading with the assigned ID attribute "section1." The anchor tag creates a hyperlink with the text "Jump to Section 1" that navigates to the corresponding section within the page when clicked.

By utilizing anchor links, you can improve the accessibility and usability of long web pages by allowing users to jump directly to the desired content.

Controlling Link Behavior with Target Attributes

HTML provides the ability to control how hyperlinks behave when clicked or tapped by using target attributes. The target attribute specifies where the linked content should open—whether in the same browser tab, a new browser tab, or a new browser window.

<a href="" target="_blank">Open in New Tab</a>

In this example, the anchor tag creates a hyperlink that, when clicked, opens the linked content in a new browser tab. The target attribute value "_blank" instructs the browser to open the link in a new tab.

Other common target attribute values include:

By utilizing target attributes, you can control the browsing experience and ensure that your linked content opens in the desired context.


In this section, we have explored the essentials of creating hyperlinks in HTML. We have learned how to use the anchor tag (<a>) to create links and specify the link destinations using relative and absolute URLs. We have also discovered how to create anchor links that navigate to specific sections within the same page, enhancing user navigation on long web pages. Additionally, we have explored how to control link behavior using target attributes, ensuring that the linked content opens in the desired context.

Mastering the art of hyperlink creation is a fundamental skill in web development, enabling us to build interconnected and user-friendly websites. In the next section, "Linking to External Websites," we will dive deeper into the realm of linking, exploring techniques for connecting our web pages to external resources. We will learn how to link to other websites, incorporate URLs with protocols, and utilize anchor tags to navigate beyond the boundaries of our own website. By expanding our knowledge of linking to external websites, we will have the power to connect our content to a broader digital landscape, enriching the user experience and expanding the possibilities of our web projects.

So, let's embark on the next chapter of our HTML journey and discover the strategies and best practices for linking to external websites. Together, we will unlock new horizons and create web experiences that seamlessly integrate with the vast online world.